The earliest record of Christianity in the area round Keighley dates from 867 AD, when Archbishop Wulfhere of York fled from marauding Danes to Addingham, where he had a manor as part of his Otley estate. There is no evidence of a Church there before the Norman Conquest, only a 9th-Century graveyard and Anglian (Celtic) cross shaft which might have marked the graveyard, or a preaching post for visiting monks. Viking supremacy in Northumbria continued until the year 954.
Before the 11th Century, the Anglo-Saxon Church was based on semi-monastic minsters, whence monks or priests would visit the surrounding settlements to preach. The nearest minster to Keighley was at Otley (dating from the 7th Century), which has three Anglian cross-shaft bases dated from the 8th & 9th Centuries. The Archbishop's estate, and so presumably Otley Minster's ecclesiastical influence, went up the R. Wharfe to Addingham, but only touched the R. Aire at Baildon. It appears that upper Airedale, although in theory part of York Diocese, was too sparsely populated for direct Church oversight.
The building of local Churches came to the district later than to other parts of England. The only pre-Conquest Churches recorded in Craven were at Kildwick (which has several Scandinavian style cross fragments dated late 9th and early 10th Centuries), Barnoldswick, Long Preston and Kirkby Malham. Keighley Parish was originally bounded on the North by Kildwick, on the West by Colne in Lancashire, and on the East and South by Bingley (including Riddlesden and Hainworth). Bingley Church was founded in 1120 by William Paganell (who also founded Drax Priory and other Churches) but it has an older fragment of Anglian cross; Colne Church was built (along with Burnley and Clitheroe) as a chapelry of Whalley by Robert de Lacy (2nd Baron of Pontefract 1089-1115) to stamp his authority on his new territory. Haworth Church was a chapelry of Bradford (built in 1070, also by the de Lacys) until 1879; it is first mentioned in a decree of 1317 compelling the (lay) Rector and Vicar of Bradford and freeholders of Haworth to pay the chaplain as "from ancient times". It is probable that the original Church was built, like Keighley, Colne and Bingley, in the Twelfth Century. Only in Keighley is it likely that the founder worshipped there regularly.
The Domesday Book (1086) entry for Keighley reads "In Chichelai, Ulchel and Thole and Ravensuar and William had six carucates to be taxed" (a carucate is the farmland which could be cultivated with one plough and a team of eight oxen in a year: 100 - 120 acres). The Old English name Chichelai means that Cyhha, an Anglo-Saxon thane, had originally cultivated a forest clearing (-ley). Domesday tells us that William was also taxed on a carucate in Utley (Utta's clearing) and another at Newsholme (new houses); he and Gamelbar shared another at Oakworth (oak-tree enclosure); Gamelbar held another three at Wilsden (Wifel's valley); Ravensuar also held two at Laycock (small stream); Ardulf, one at Riddelesden (Rethel's valley), four at Morton (moorland farmstead) and half at Hainworth (Hagena's enclosure); Ernegis had half a carucate at Hainworth and one at Marley (a clearing frequented by martens)... "and they are waste" referring to William the Conqueror''s harrying of the North after a failed revolt.
Apart from some Viking settlements, these names of people and places are Old English. There are no place names of Roman or Celtic origin in the area, probably because their ploughs could not cope with the heavy clay soil. The picture that emerges is of the Anglo-Saxons carving farmsteads out of the wildwood with the aid of their 8-oxen iron-shod ploughs. These farmstead gradually developed into villages. It may be that the later development of local Churches here reflects a later change of settlement pattern from dispersed farmsteads to villages, which became the norm for rural society for a millennium.
The Domesday Book represents Norman over-lordship. Craven is recorded as royal land, taken from Saxon Earl Edwin after his participation in the revolt; around 1100 it was granted to Robert de Romille, and became part of the Barony of Skipton. Robert's daughter Cecilia founded a priory of Augustinian Canons at Embsay, which moved in 1154 to Bolton – far enough up Wharfedale from Otley to avoid clashing with the Archbishop's territorial or ecclesiastical interests. Bolton Priory came to control land and Churches in upper Airedale from Keighley to Malham, as well as in Wharfedale.
The earliest evidences of Christianity in Keighley are a crude Anglian cross dating from the mid 12th Century, and a grave slab with a cross and other emblems (now in the SE corner of the Church). These were discovered in the foundations of the medieval Church when it was demolished in 1805. The earliest written record of Keighley Church is a charter dated 1168-79 by which Peter de Pinchenni (Pinkney) "with the consent of Constance his wife, grants to God and St. Mary of Bolton and the Canons there serving God the Church of St. Andrew of Kichalaie". Some 80 years later Richard de Kygheley, son of Ralph and Lord of the Manor, confirmed this grant together with a pension of one mark (13/ 4d). Nothing more is known of the Pinkney family in Yorkshire, nor how they were related to the Keighleys. Keighley Rectory (endowment) was valued for Pope Nicholas' taxation at £8.
The first Rector we know by name is William le Vavasour, appointed by Bolton Priory in 1245. He was a Justice of Trailbaston, which meant he could issue summary justice to hooligans (unfortunately this power has not been passed on to his successors!). A chantry was added to the Church in 1337, to say daily mass for the souls of benefactors – presumably the Keighley family. Walter de Langton (Rector 1272-94) went on to become Bishop of Lichfield and Lord Treasurer to Edward II. The only other incumbent to "take purple" was Eric Treacy (Rector 1945-50) who became Bishop of Wakefield.
In 1305 King Edward I granted "to Sir Henry de Kyghelay and his heirs, the right for a weekly market on Wednesdays at their manor of Kyghelay in the county of York; and of a yearly fair, on the eve, the feast and the morrow of Saints Simon & Jude (28th October); also of free warren (the right to keep rabbits, then a luxury) in all the demesne lands of the said manor". The old market was situated immediately North of the churchyard; the wall onto Church Walk facing the market site is the oldest stonework still standing, and may date from then (the side facing the churchyard has been re-faced).
Yorkshire was still border country. In 1138 King David of Scotland led an army into Yorkshire, when William FitzDuncan beat King Stephen at the Battle of Clitheroe. In 1152 he was installed by King David in the Honour of Skipton and Crafna (Craven). Robert Clifford became first Baron of Skipton in 1310. He was killed at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, after which Scots raiders sacked Bingley and Bradford Churches, but spared Keighley and Kildwick because they were dedicated to St. Andrew.
The 1379 poll tax returns showed that Keighley then had 62 householders, of whom 12 were women (two of whom were recorded to have wives?!); working on an average of 5 people per household, that would give a population for the town of 310 – a sizeable settlement after the Black Death of 1348-9 (for comparison, Haworth had 40 householders). Nicholaus de Kyghelay, knight, paid 3/4d; Elena de Glasenbroke, hosteller, 2s.; Johannes de Coplay, squire, 12d; craftsmen including a weaver, a fuller, two blacksmiths and two carpenters 6d; and others 4d, totalling 27s.
There are two more ancient grave-slabs in the Church, dating from about 1450. One names Gilbert Kyghlay de Utlay and Margaret, his wife. Gilbert was the younger son of Sir John and Alice Keighley, and nephew of Sir Gilbert Keighley of Cawood; he married Margaret de Copley, of the Manor of Sutton. The other stone commemorates a lady of the Copley family, possibly Margaret's mother. Towards the end of the 16th Century, the Keighleys married into the Cavendish family, who thus became Lords of the Manor of Keighley (amid other titles).
There is no record of any disturbances in Keighley over the Reformation. Apparently Rector Christopher Ashton (1524-1555) served under Henry VIII before and after his break with Rome, Protestant Edward VI and Catholic Mary. The main difference to the parish was caused by the dissolution of the monasteries, including Bolton Priory (still receiving its 13/4d pension from Keighley). So the next Rector, John Medehope, was presented by a new patron, Henry, Earl of Cumberland (the new title of the Clifford family). In the King's book of 1539 the value of the Rectory had increased to£21.0/6d. In 1635 Margaret Clifford married Richard, second Earl of Cork who became first Earl of Burlington; when the male line of Cliffords failed, the Earls inherited the patronage. In 1677 Countess Elizabeth of Burlington and Cork donated a silver chalice to the Church, now kept in York Minster Treasury.The fourth Earl of Cork had no male issue, and in 1753 the titles passed by the marriage of his daughter to the Cavendish family, now Dukes of Devonshire. So the patronage of Keighley Parish Church passed back to the Lords of the Manor of Keighley, associated with the Church from its earliest years.
Keighley Parish registers of weddings, baptisms and funerals begin in 1562 (they are now kept by West Yorkshire Archive Service). Under the old Julian Calendar, the New Year began on March 25th (the Gregorian Calendar was not adopted in Britain until 1752). In 1562 there were 25 baptisms, 14 marriages and 32 burials. A later hand has annotated the bastards in the margin, either through moral outrage, or because they were a charge on the parish rates. The first two registers are written on parchment, as required by Elizabeth's Act of 1592. The age at death is not usually given, but the burials of two centenarians are recorded: Adam Widdop aged 100 on 12th October 1593, and Dennis Garforth aged 103 on 30th May 1625. The registers give evidence of a cottage wool industry: clothiers, shalloon (fine woollen cloth) makers, a yarn dealer and wool comb maker.
During the civil war, there was a parliamentary garrison in the town (possibly at Guardhouse), while the royalist Cliffords held Skipton. 12 soldiers are recorded as being buried in the churchyard, including 4 after a skirmish in February 1644: 150 horse from Skipton took advantage of the absence of Col. Brandling, attacked Keighley garrison by surprise and captured 100 prisoners, 60 horses and booty. Col. Lambert was quartered nearby, heard the alarm and came to the rescue; he recovered all the prisoners and most of the booty, took 20 royalist prisoners including their commander Captain Hughes, and pursued the rest to the gates of Skipton Castle.
Baptisms and Church weddings were suspended under the puritans from November 3rd 1653, when babies were simply recorded as "borne" and civil marriages were recorded in the back of the register, signed by the local JP, Roger Coates, not the minister. From May 1658, Church weddings and baptisms appear again in the register in a different hand – apparently that of Thomas Danby who could not be instituted as Rector until the bishops were restored along with the monarchy in 1660.
After the Restoration, a new altar (since transferred to St. Peter's Church and ? returned) and font were made. The date AD 1661 can still be seen on the font with the symbols of wreath, chalice, cross, pincers and nails with the inscription "See: here is water. Act 8:36". When the Church was rebuilt in 1848 a new font was provided, and the old one thrown out. It was later discovered being used as a blacksmith's slaking trough, and restored to the Church in 1932.
1661 also saw the start of the Churchwardens' Accounts. They include the accounts of the Overseers of the Poor, the Parish Constable and the Surveyors of the Highways, all elected at the Vestry Meeting of all freeholders (i.e. ratepayers) in the parish. This was the basic unit of local government until 1824.
The accounts include punishments meted out by the Constable & Wardens, e.g. April 28th 1662 "Thomas Rownson of Staveley, near Kendal in Westmorland, stocked and whipped" (the stocks were by the West Door of the Church).
Until 1710 special collections known as briefs were made for various good causes, including:
|September 22nd 1661||for rebuilding Scarborough Church 2/4d|
|November 23rd 1662||to John Addisham a poor distressed traveller 1s|
|October 8th 1666||for ye poore of London who suffered by ye late fire £1.17s.10d|
|August 21st 1670||to two women in the Ile of Sky 2/6d|
|May 7th 1678||to two ladies in Cornwall for loss of £25,000 by pyrasy 1s|
|October 19th 1678||for the building of St. Paul's Church in London 14/2d|
|June 27th 1680||to sufferers of a fire in Tadkaster 6/5d|
|August 15th 1680||redemption of captives by ye Turks 19/1d – referring either to the last campaign by the Caliph to take Vienna, or else hostages from the south coasts of England taken by Barbary pirates and ransomed or sold into slavery|
|April 16th 1682||for relief of ye French distressed Protestants 8/6d|
|June 7th 1705||to widows and orphans of those who lost their lives in ye late dreadful storm 12/8d|
A succession of Poor Laws were passed from the Tudors onwards, trying to balance compassion to the poor with reducing the parish rate – gaoling fathers of bastards until they indemnified the parish for the expense of raising the children (in 1792 the Vestry Meeting agreed to repay Jonas Anderton an indemnity of £9-10-0 he had paid for a child likely to be born a bastard in the parish, as he had married the woman while she was still pregnant), classifying vagrants into "idle and disorderly persons, rogues and vagabonds, or incorrigible rogues" and from 1722 maintaining a workhouse. Some maintain the poor were better cared for under Elizabeth I than II. All this was governed by the parish vestry meeting.
In 1813-14 the Guardians of the Poor accounts read as follows:
|£ - s- d||£ - s- d|
|b/f||25- 9- 3½||Workhouse||336- 4- 9½|
|Overseers (poor rate)||1395- 9– ½||Nessessity||805- 7- 5½|
|Militia||191- 0- 0||Militia||327-12- 0|
|Bastardy||167-19- 6||Bastardy||244- 6- 6|
|Debit to Workhouse||236-15-11||Monthly||303- 3- 0|
|2016-13- 9||2016-13- 9|
- a lot of money in those days; the problems of the Child Support Agency are nothing new! In addition the Churchwardens spent £1030-7-11½, the Surveyors of the Highways £233-3-11 and the Parish Constable £363-5-7½. Why were the Guardians of the Poor paying the local militia? Each parish was supposed to provide a number of householders to serve in the local militia. Most did not want to (on November 13th 1805, the Vestry Meeting resolved that the Constable "shall make endeavours to raise men"), and paid to be relieved of service; the Guardians had to maintain the destitute families of militia men and their substitutes.
The oldest gravestone in the churchyard is dated 1690, although the churchyard must have been in use since the Church was built, and possibly before. It was extended down to the beck in 1793. Miles Gale's plan of the Church in 1713 shows a charnel house adjoining the North side of the tower; this was for storing old bones found when the sexton dug a new grave. A gravestone by the vestry records the burial of William Sharp, known as "Old Three Laps". He was jilted at the altar, as his father would not provide enough dowry; he retired to his bed for the 49 years until his death, and never spoke to anyone. At his death he weighed 240 lb, and took eight strong men to lower his body into the grave. The last burial was in 1936, after which the churchyard was closed by order of the Privy Council. The burial records demonstrate the improvement of health in Victorian times, caused mostly by the supply of clean water and sewers.
The earliest mention of education in Keighley is a 1546 reference to William Illingworth, chantry priest and schoolmaster. The chantries were dissolved under Edward VI, and Illingworth is mentioned later as curate to an absentee rector; we do not know if he continued to teach. Schoolmasters are mentioned regularly in parish records from 1592. In 1702 the school was maintained by John Drake, local maltster and innkeeper, who when he died unmarried in 1713 left money in his will for a schoolmaster's salary. His gravestone may now be found at the front of the Nave. Unfortunately his bequest led to disputes between Miles Gale (Rector 1680-1720) and the other trustees over building a new school. The arguments were recorded in detail by Gale in his History of the Free Grammar School in Kighley, which was never published (probably because of the strong invective and personal abuse it contained). Gale was Keighley's first historian; he wrote An Account of the Town and Parish of Kighley published in Thomas Gent's History of Ripon (1733). His notebook is still in the parish records, with a drawing of the original Church and details of improvements he made to the windows and pews. Gale may have been cantankerous, but at least he was assiduous in his duties, unlike his predecessor Jonathan Dryden who had 5 parishes, or at least the income from them.
Gale wrote "for want of knowledge, some were seduced to that vile sect of the Quakers, and others by that wicked crew of the Anabaptists, to follow false ways of worship." The Quakers were the main dissenting group in Keighley. Their graveyard dates from 1658, and may still be seen in North Dean Street. Freedom of worship was finally granted by Parliament in 1688. In 1743 Elias Harrison was curate to absentee Rector Richard Scott (who lived at his other parish of Gargrave); he replied to Archbishop Herring's visitation enquiries that there were only 20 dissenting families out of 450 in Keighley Parish, and no Roman Catholics; there were 933 confirmed communicants, but only 230 of these had attended Holy Communion (celebrated only five times) during the previous year.
In 1742 Methodism came to Keighley in the form of lay preacher John Nelson. He was cousin to Mary Wilkinson married to John the shoemaker. His visit led to the first class of ten Methodists in the town; they met in a granary, led by John Wilkinson who himself became a self-taught preacher. His first convert was businessman Thomas Colbeck. Between them they led Methodism in Keighley for many years. In 1744 they invited John Nelson back to preach in Haworth; the incumbent of Haworth, John Grimshaw, opposed the visit, but when he heard him he too was converted to Methodism, and became the charismatic leader of the Haworth Round stretching as far as Whitehaven. After Grimshaw's death in 1763, leadership of local Methodism reverted to Keighley. Colbeck purchased land in Temple row and built the first chapel in 1754. This was extended twice, and new chapels built in 1810 (now Keighley Plumbers) and 1884 (now Shah Jalal Mosque).
John and Charles Wesley visited on several occasions. In 1748 John Wesley, Grimshaw and Colbeck set off on the Haworth Round; at Roughlee they were set on by a mob led by the incumbent of Colne, Rev. George White. Keighley Rectors Charles Knowlton (1753-1814) and Theodore Dury (1814-1840) were more sympathetic. Knowlton's daughter-in-law Mary and son-in-law Robert Dawson were Methodists. In the year Dury became Rector, one of his churchwardens, Lodge Calvert, was also Methodist Circuit Steward. Relations cooled when William Busfield became Rector (1840-1871). He discovered that Sunday worship in the workhouse was taken by a rota of Rector and Free Church ministers; he gave the Board of Guardians an ultimatum: either all the worship should be Anglican or he would not take part; they dispensed with his services.
Keighley Sunday School opened in 1784 in the Free School room, open to children of all denominations, teaching the poor to read and write as well as the Bible and catechism. It closed in 1790 due to difficulty in paying the teachers. It reopened in Temple Row with the support of Knowlton and Dury. Only after the number of pupils exceeded 900 in 1815 did denominations make their own provision. They continued to cooperate in Keighley Sunday Schools Union, and in 1831 reported that out of a total population of 8000 in their area, 2500 children (i.e. virtually all) attended Sunday School. Keighley (Church of England) National School was built at the bottom of West Lane in 1834, in the garden of the Rectory.
Until the 18th Century, peasants were generally comfortably off, but the enclosures of the agricultural revolution drove many into poverty, and off the land. Miles Gale recorded the population of Keighley in 1695 as 1,704 including 112 freeholders and "numerous poor". The Churchwardens' accounts also include the census figures for Keighley in 1801 (population 5,745), 1811 (6,864) and 1821 (9,223). By 1851 the population had increased to 18,258, and by 1901 to 41,564. The main reason for this rapid increase was the arrival of the industrial revolution in the form of the canal (the Bingley to Skipton stretch of the Leeds-Liverpool canal opened in 1773), the first cotton mill in Yorkshire (1780) and the railway (1847 to Leeds and Bradford; 1849 to Colne). Rev. Dr. T.D. Whitaker, Rector of Whalley, wrote of Keighley in his History and Antiquities of the Deanery of Craven (1805) "This parish lies immediately North from that of Bingley, in the course of the Are, with little which can interest the eye, the memory or the imagination. I may therefore be excused if I betray some anxiety to reach more pleasing scenes; for hard is the fate of a Topographer while he respires the smoke of the manufactories and is stunned by the din of recent population."
The population of Keighley grew as a market town from the Black Death until the Industrial Revolution in line with the rest of the population of England. Its rapid expansion thereafter came by immigration to work in the mills: first from the Yorkshire Dales, then from Ireland (St. Anne's Roman Catholic Church was built in 1840), then after the 2nd World War from Ukraine, Poland, Malta and Italy, in the 1960s from Pakistan, Kashmir and Bangladesh (Keighley's first Mosque was built in Emily Street in 1972) and more recently from Kerala (South India) and E. Europe. Although a Ukrainian Orthodox congregation worshipped in St. Andrew's for some time, the history of Keighley was no longer bound up with the Parish Church. Keighley was incorporated as a borough in 1882, and became part of Bradford Metropolitan District in 1974.
The increase in population meant that the medieval Church was not large enough. It was blown up in 1805, and a new building erected in 1807 at a cost of over £4,000 paid out of the local rates. The first organ was installed in 1811; donors included the trustees of the Methodist Chapel. Unfortunately the roof was badly built, so that in 1843 the building had to be demolished and the present building erected in 1848. The Vestry Meeting refused a Church rate (Rev. Busfield should have been more conciliatory to the Non-Conformists), so the cost of £6,419-4s-4d (donations and expenditure itemised in the churchwardens' accounts) had to be defrayed by public subscription.
While the new Church was being built, worship continued at the new Parish Church of St. John, Ingrow. Parishes were also carved out at Christ Church Oakworth (1846), St. Mary Eastwood (1855, closed 1956), Holy Trinity, Lawkholme (1881, closed 1974), St. Peter, in South Street (1882, closed 1955). Daughter Churches were built at St. John Newsholme (now in Oakworth Parish), St. Matthew Braithwaite (1854, closed 1975), All Saints Highfield (1879) and St. Mark Utley (1889). St. Mary's had 2 daughter Churches at St. Paul Parkwood (1884, closed 1961) and St. Barnabas Thwaites Brow (1900). St. John's Ingrow had a daughter Church at St. Michael Bracken Bank (1964, closed 1981). In 1981 the united benefice of Keighley was divided, so All Saints, St. Mark and St. Barnabas became separate parishes. At the top of the stained glass window in the North Aisle showing Jesus calling the four fishermen are crests representing the daughter Churches at the time.
The present Church was designed by R.D. Chantrell in Victorian Gothic style. A new organ was built by Brindley & Foster in 1877, and rebuilt in 1955. The reredos in stone and alabaster portraying the Ascension dates from 1881. The brass eagle lectern was given in 1884 in memory of F.J. Lace. In 1898 a new vestry and parish room were added at the East end of the South Aisle. In 1900 a new entrance was made at the West end of the tower – previously the South door was the main entrance. In 1903 the clock was given which chimes to the tune of S.S. Wesley's motet Lead me, Lord, in thy righteousness. The bells, originally cast in 1761 as a ring of 6, were re-cast and re-hung as a ring of 8 in 1914. After the Great War, the East end of the North Aisle was made into a War Memorial Chapel.
The West Window bears the arms of Queen Victoria, the Bishop of Ripon (Ripon Diocese was carved out of York in 1836; Bradford Diocese was not created until 1919), the Duke of Devonshire and Earl of Burlington (then patron), Frederick Greenwood (benefactor) and Rev. William Busfield (Rector). The East Window portrays the Te Deum canticle (No. 833 in Hymns & Psalms) showing Christ as King of glory attended by angels, prophets, martyrs and representatives of the Church on earth. The most recent stained glass (2005) is in the North Aisle, representing the "I Am" sayings of Jesus, with Holman Hunt's famous "Light of the World" picture in the centre.
In 1931 the side galleries were removed, leaving only the West gallery. In 1975 the pews were removed in the north Aisle, the choir stalls moved next to the organ console making room for a Nave Altar (a dining table dated 1678), and a new pulpit made. The area under the West gallery was re-ordered in 1976 into a narthex named after Canon Clifford Hamer (Rector 1950-71). The area outside the West Front of the Church, known as Church Green, was re-organised by Bradford Council in 1981, incorporating part of the Churchyard. The Nave was re-ordered in 1985, with chairs replacing pews – the old pews were very uncomfortable.
The story continues with the Keighley Shared Church history.
|1245||William le Vasavour||Prior and Canons of Bolton Priory|
|before 1270||Thomas Parson|
|1272||Walter de Langton|
|1295||Robert de Nassington|
|about 1406||Robert de Nuffield|
|1446||John Bradford Cappell|
|1477||Robert Thompson alias Darnton|
|1555||John Medehope||Henry, Earl of Cumberland|
|1572||Antonius Forde||Collated by Archbishop of York|
|1578||Richard Patchett (or Paget)||Executors of Henry, Earl of Cumberland|
|1616||Thomas Browne||Francis, Earl of Cumberland|
|1660||Thomas Danby||Richard, Earl of Cork|
|1720-21||Tobias Wickham||Charles, Earl of Burlington|
|Benjamin Collins||Richard, Earl of Burlington|
|1814||Theodore Drury||The Duke of Devonshire|
|1888||Canon Frederick Cramer|
|1899||Canon Henry Palmer|
|1909||Canon Ludovick Robinson|
|1918||Canon Edward Hunter|
|1932||Canon John Hood|
|1945||Canon Eric Treacy|
|1950||Canon Edward Hamer|
|1983||Canon Peter Hutchinson||Collated by Bishop of Bradford|
|2001||Peter Mott||Licensed by Bishop of Bradford|
|2014||Canon Derek Walmsley||Licensed by Bishop of Bradford|
Please click on the image (left) to see an enlarged version of the church plan.
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